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Cara Memindai Rootkit, Backdoor, dan Eksploitasi Menggunakan 'Rootkit Hunter' di Linux

Apa itu Rkhunter?


Rkhunter (Rootkit Hunter) adalah perangkat pemindai berbasis Unix/Linux open-source untuk struktur Linux yang diluncurkan di bawah GPL yang memindai backdoor, rootkit, dan eksploitasi terdekat pada sistem Anda.

Ini memindai file tersembunyi, izin yang salah ditetapkan pada binari, string mencurigakan di kernel, dll. Untuk memahami lebih lanjut tentang Rkhunter dan elemennya, kunjungi https://rkhunter.sourceforge.net/.
Instal Pemindai Rootkit Hunter di Sistem Linux
Langkah 1: Mengunduh Rkhunter

Pertama, unduh model stabil kontemporer perangkat Rkhunter dengan menggunakan http://rkhunter.sourceforge.net/ atau gunakan perintah Wget di bawah untuk mengunduhnya di sistem Anda.

# cd /tmp
# wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/rkhunter/rkhunter/1.4.6/rkhunter-1.4.6.tar.gz

Langkah 2: Menginstal Rkhunter


Setelah Anda mengunduh versi modern, jalankan instruksi berikut sebagai root person untuk menyiapkannya.

# tar -xvf rkhunter-1.4.6.tar.gz 
# cd rkhunter-1.4.6
# ./installer.sh --layout default --install

Contoh Keluaran

Checking system for:
 Rootkit Hunter installer files: found
 A web file download command: wget found
Starting installation:
 Checking installation directory "/usr/local": it exists and is writable.
 Checking installation directories:
  Directory /usr/local/share/doc/rkhunter-1.4.2: creating: OK
  Directory /usr/local/share/man/man8: exists and is writable.
  Directory /etc: exists and is writable.
  Directory /usr/local/bin: exists and is writable.
  Directory /usr/local/lib64: exists and is writable.
  Directory /var/lib: exists and is writable.
  Directory /usr/local/lib64/rkhunter/scripts: creating: OK
  Directory /var/lib/rkhunter/db: creating: OK
  Directory /var/lib/rkhunter/tmp: creating: OK
  Directory /var/lib/rkhunter/db/i18n: creating: OK
  Directory /var/lib/rkhunter/db/signatures: creating: OK
 Installing check_modules.pl: OK
 Installing filehashsha.pl: OK
 Installing stat.pl: OK
 Installing readlink.sh: OK
 Installing backdoorports.dat: OK
 Installing mirrors.dat: OK
 Installing programs_bad.dat: OK
 Installing suspscan.dat: OK
 Installing rkhunter.8: OK
 Installing ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: OK
 Installing CHANGELOG: OK
 Installing FAQ: OK
 Installing LICENSE: OK
 Installing README: OK
 Installing language support files: OK
 Installing ClamAV signatures: OK
 Installing rkhunter: OK
 Installing rkhunter.conf: OK
Installation complete

Langkah 3: Memperbarui Rkhunter

Jalankan RKH updater untuk mengisi database rumah dengan cara berjalan perintah berikut.

# /usr/local/bin/rkhunter --update
# /usr/local/bin/rkhunter --propupd

Contoh Keluaran

[ Rootkit Hunter version 1.4.6 ]

Checking rkhunter data files...
  Checking file mirrors.dat                                  [ Updated ]
  Checking file programs_bad.dat                             [ No update ]
  Checking file backdoorports.dat                            [ No update ]
  Checking file suspscan.dat                                 [ No update ]
  Checking file i18n/cn                                      [ No update ]
  Checking file i18n/de                                      [ No update ]
  Checking file i18n/en                                      [ No update ]
  Checking file i18n/tr                                      [ No update ]
  Checking file i18n/tr.utf8                                 [ No update ]
  Checking file i18n/zh                                      [ No update ]
  Checking file i18n/zh.utf8                                 [ No update ]
  Checking file i18n/ja                                      [ No update ]
File created: searched for 177 files, found 131, missing hashes 1

Langkah 4: Mengatur Cronjob dan Email Alerts

Buat file yang disebut rkhunter.sh di bawah /etc/cron.daily/, yang kemudian memindai perangkat file Anda setiap hari dan mengirimkan pemberitahuan surat elektronik ke id surat elektronik Anda. Buat file berikut dengan bantuan editor favorit Anda.

# vi /etc/cron.daily/rkhunter.sh

Tambahkan jejak kode berikut ke dalamnya dan tukar "NamaServerAndaDi Sini" dengan "Nama Server" dan "Anda@email.com" dengan "Id Email" Anda.

#!/bin/sh
(
/usr/local/bin/rkhunter --versioncheck
/usr/local/bin/rkhunter --update
/usr/local/bin/rkhunter --cronjob --report-warnings-only
) | /bin/mail -s 'rkhunter Daily Run (PutYourServerNameHere)' your@email.com

Tetapkan izin eksekusi pada file.

# chmod 755 /etc/cron.daily/rkhunter.sh

Langkah 5: Pemindaian dan Penggunaan Manual

Untuk memindai seluruh sistem file, jalankan Rkhunter sebagai pengguna root.

# rkhunter --check

Contoh Keluaran

[ Rootkit Hunter version 1.4.6 ]

Checking system commands...

  Performing 'strings' command checks
    Checking 'strings' command                               [ OK ]

  Performing 'shared libraries' checks
    Checking for preloading variables                        [ None found ]
    Checking for preloaded libraries                         [ None found ]
    Checking LD_LIBRARY_PATH variable                        [ Not found ]

  Performing file properties checks
    Checking for prerequisites                               [ OK ]
    /usr/local/bin/rkhunter                                  [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/adduser                                        [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/chkconfig                                      [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/chroot                                         [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/depmod                                         [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/fsck                                           [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/fuser                                          [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/groupadd                                       [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/groupdel                                       [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/groupmod                                       [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/grpck                                          [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/ifconfig                                       [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/ifdown                                         [ Warning ]
    /usr/sbin/ifup                                           [ Warning ]
    /usr/sbin/init                                           [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/insmod                                         [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/ip                                             [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/lsmod                                          [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/lsof                                           [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/modinfo                                        [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/modprobe                                       [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/nologin                                        [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/pwck                                           [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/rmmod                                          [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/route                                          [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/rsyslogd                                       [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/runlevel                                       [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/sestatus                                       [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/sshd                                           [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/sulogin                                        [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/sysctl                                         [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/tcpd                                           [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/useradd                                        [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/userdel                                        [ OK ]
    /usr/sbin/usermod                                        [ OK ]
....
[Press  to continue]


Checking for rootkits...

  Performing check of known rootkit files and directories
    55808 Trojan - Variant A                                 [ Not found ]
    ADM Worm                                                 [ Not found ]
    AjaKit Rootkit                                           [ Not found ]
    Adore Rootkit                                            [ Not found ]
    aPa Kit                                                  [ Not found ]
.....

[Press  to continue]


  Performing additional rootkit checks
    Suckit Rookit additional checks                          [ OK ]
    Checking for possible rootkit files and directories      [ None found ]
    Checking for possible rootkit strings                    [ None found ]

....
[Press  to continue]


Checking the network...

  Performing checks on the network ports
    Checking for backdoor ports                              [ None found ]
....
  Performing system configuration file checks
    Checking for an SSH configuration file                   [ Found ]
    Checking if SSH root access is allowed                   [ Warning ]
    Checking if SSH protocol v1 is allowed                   [ Warning ]
    Checking for a running system logging daemon             [ Found ]
    Checking for a system logging configuration file         [ Found ]
    Checking if syslog remote logging is allowed             [ Not allowed ]
...
System checks summary
=====================

File properties checks...
    Files checked: 137
    Suspect files: 6

Rootkit checks...
    Rootkits checked : 383
    Possible rootkits: 0

Applications checks...
    Applications checked: 5
    Suspect applications: 2

The system checks took: 5 minutes and 38 seconds

All results have been written to the log file: /var/log/rkhunter.log

One or more warnings have been found while checking the system.
Please check the log file (/var/log/rkhunter.log)

Perintah di atas menghasilkan file log di bawah /var/log/rkhunter.log dengan melihat konsekuensi yang dibuat dengan menggunakan Rkhunter.

# cat /var/log/rkhunter.log

Contoh Keluaran

[11:21:04] Running Rootkit Hunter version 1.4.6 on tecmint
[11:21:04]
[11:21:04] Info: Start date is Mon Dec 21 11:21:04 AM IST 2020
[11:21:04]
[11:21:04] Checking configuration file and command-line options...
[11:21:04] Info: Detected operating system is 'Linux'
[11:21:04] Info: Found O/S name: Fedora release 33 (Thirty Three)
[11:21:04] Info: Command line is /usr/local/bin/rkhunter --check
[11:21:04] Info: Environment shell is /bin/bash; rkhunter is using bash
[11:21:04] Info: Using configuration file '/etc/rkhunter.conf'
[11:21:04] Info: Installation directory is '/usr/local'
[11:21:04] Info: Using language 'en'
[11:21:04] Info: Using '/var/lib/rkhunter/db' as the database directory
[11:21:04] Info: Using '/usr/local/lib64/rkhunter/scripts' as the support script directory
[11:21:04] Info: Using '/usr/local/sbin /usr/local/bin /usr/sbin /usr/bin /bin /sbin /usr/libexec /usr/local/libexec' as the command directories
[11:21:04] Info: Using '/var/lib/rkhunter/tmp' as the temporary directory
[11:21:04] Info: No mail-on-warning address configured
[11:21:04] Info: X will be automatically detected
[11:21:04] Info: Found the 'basename' command: /usr/bin/basename
[11:21:04] Info: Found the 'diff' command: /usr/bin/diff
[11:21:04] Info: Found the 'dirname' command: /usr/bin/dirname
[11:21:04] Info: Found the 'file' command: /usr/bin/file
[11:21:04] Info: Found the 'find' command: /usr/bin/find
[11:21:04] Info: Found the 'ifconfig' command: /usr/sbin/ifconfig
[11:21:04] Info: Found the 'ip' command: /usr/sbin/ip
[11:21:04] Info: Found the 'ipcs' command: /usr/bin/ipcs
[11:21:04] Info: Found the 'ldd' command: /usr/bin/ldd
[11:21:04] Info: Found the 'lsattr' command: /usr/bin/lsattr
...

Untuk catatan dan alternatif tambahan, jalankan perintah berikut.

# rkhunter --help

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