Kind Of Text (Macam-Macam Teks Dalam Bahasa Inggris)

Narrative
  • Purpose : To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story.
  • Generic Structure :
  1. Orientation
  2. Complication
  3. Resolution
  4. Reorientation
  • Language Feature :
  1. Using Past Tense
  2. Using Action Verb
  3. Chronologically Arranged


Recount
  • Purpose : To retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event.
  • Generic Structure :
  1. Orientation
  2. Event(s)
  3. Reorientation
  • Language Feature :
  1. Using Past Tense
  2. Using Action Verb
  3. Using Adjectives
Narrative and Recount in some ways are similiar. Both are telling something in the past, so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Past Tense, Simple Past Continues Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book; myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography.
The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Narrative using conflicts among the participants whether natural conflicts, social conflict, or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. In the contrary, we do not found these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure.


Descriptive
  • Purpose : To describe a particular person, place, or thing in detail.
  • Generic Structure :
  1. Identification
  2. Description
  • Language Features :
  1. Using Simple Present Tense
  2. Using Action Verb
  3. Using Adverb
  4. Using Special Technical Terms


Report
  • Purpose : To presents information about something, as it is.
  • Generic Structure :
  1. General Classification
  2. Description
  • Language Features :
  1. Introducing Group or General Aspect
  2. Using Conditional Logical Connection
  3. Using Simple Past Tense


Explanation
  • Purpose : To explain the processes involved in the information or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.
  • Generic Structure :
  1. General Statement
  2. Explanation
  3. Closing
  • Language Features :
  1. Using Simple Past Tense
  2. Using Action Verb
  3. Using Passive Voice
  4. Using Noun Phrase
  5. Using Adverbial Phrase
  6. Using Technical Terms
  7. Using General and Abstract Noun
  8. Using Conjuction of Time and Cause-effect.


Analytical Exposition
  • Purpose : To reveal the readers that something is the important case.
  • Generic Structure :
  1. Thesis
  2. Arguments
  3. Reiteration/Conclusion
  • Language Features :
  1. Using Modals
  2. Using Action Verbs
  3. Using Thinking Verbs
  4. Using Adverbs
  5. Using Adjective
  6. Using Technical Terms
  7. Using General and Abstract Noun
  8. Using Connectives/Transition


Hortatory Exposition
  • Purpose : To persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done.
  • Generic Structure :
  1. Thesis
  2. Arguments
  3. Recommendation
  • Language Features :
  1. Using Simple Present Tense
  2. Using Modals
  3. Using Action Verbs
  4. Using Thinking Verbs
  5. Using Adverbs
  6. Using Adjective
  7. Using Technical Terms
  8. Using General and Abstract Noun
  9. Using Connectives/Transition
Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. In simple word. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. It's to convice that the thing should be done.

Procedure


  •  Purpose : To help readers how to do or make something completely.
  • Generic Structure :
  1. Goal/Aim
  2. Materials/Equipments
  3. Steps/Methods
  • Language Features :
  1. Using Simple Present Tense
  2. Using Imperative Sentence
  3. Using Adverb
  4. Using Technical Terms



Discussion


  • Purpose : To present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue ('For/Pros' and 'Against/Cons')
  • Generic Structure :
  1. Issue
  2. Arguments for and Against
  3. Conclusion
  • Language Features :
  1. Using Simple Present Tense
  2. Use of Relating Verb/To be
  3. Using Thinking Verb
  4. Using General and Abstract Noun
  5. Using Conjunction/Transition
  6. Using Modality
  7. Using Adverb of Manner



Review


  • Purpose : To critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience
  • Generic Structure :
  1. Orientation
  2. Evaluation
  3. Interpretative Recount
  4. Evaluative Summation
  • Language Features :
  1. Focus on Spesific Partisipants
  2. Using Adjectives
  3. Using Long and Complex Clauses
  4. Using Metaphor



Anecdote


  • Purpose : To share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident.
  • Generic Structure :
  1. Abstract
  2. Orientation
  3. Crisis
  4. Reaction
  5. Coda
  • Language Features :
  1. Using Exclamations, Rhetorical Question or Intensifiers
  2. Using Material Process
  3. Using Temporal Conjuctions



Spoof


  • Purpose : To tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers.
  • Generic Structure :
  1. Orientation
  2. Event(s)
  3. Twist
  • Language Features :
  1. Using Past Tense
  2. Using Action Verb
  3. Using Adverb
  4. Chronologically Arranged



News Item


  • Purpose : To inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.
  • Generic Structure :
  1. Newsworthy Event(s)
  2. Background Event(s)
  3. Sources
  • Language Features :
  1. Short, Telegraphic Information About Story Captured in Headline
  2. Using Action Verbs
  3. Using Saying Verbs
  4. Using Adverbs : Time, Place, and Manner.


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